A turbo is a high accuracy ‘air pump’, used to supply more air into the engine by connecting on the usually unused energy in the engine exhaust.
The deplete gases (dark red arrow) drive the turbine wheel and shaft, which is coupled to the compressor wheel. When the compressor wheel interchanges, fresh air (dark blue arrow) is forced-fed at high pressure into the combustion chamber (light blue arrow). With a high concentration of oxygen per cubic volume and optimum air-fuel ratio, combustion is now cleaner and more comprehensive.
Intercooling is the process of cooling the heated (and pressurized) intake air after the turbocharger or supercharger before it enters the combustion chamber
Wastegate is a boost-controlling device that runs by controlling exhaust gases going through the turbocharger, monitoring the maximum boost force produced by the turbocharger itself. A Wastegate comprises of an inlet and outlet port, a valve and a pressure actuator.